Friday, March 20, 2020
Megaraptor - Facts and Figures Name: Megaraptor (Greek for giant thief); pronounced MEG-ah-rap-tore Habitat: Plains and woodlands of South America Historical Period: Late Cretaceous (90-85 million years ago) Size and Weight: About 25 feet long and 1-2 tons Diet: Meat Distinguishing Characteristics: Large size; bipedal posture; long, single claws on front hands About Megaraptor Like another impressively named beast, Gigantoraptor, Megaraptor has been a bit oversold, in that this large, carnivorous dinosaur wasnt technically a true raptor. When the scattered fossils of Megaraptor were discovered in Argentina in the late 1990s, paleontologists were impressed by a single, foot-long claw, which they assumed was located on this dinosaurs hind feethence its classification as a raptor (and one that would have been even bigger than the biggest raptor yet identified, Utahraptor). On closer analysis, though, it turned out that Megaraptor was actually a large theropod closely related to Allosaurus and Neovenator, and that those single, oversized claws were located on its hands rather than its feet. Sealing the deal, Megaraptor has proved to be similar in appearance to another large theropod from Australia, Australovenator, a hint that Australia may have been connected to South America later into the Cretaceous period than was previously thought. Its place in the dinosaur bestiary aside, what was Megaraptor actually like? Well, it wouldnt be surprising if this South American dinosaur was covered with feathers (at least during some stage of its life cycle), and it almost certainly subsisted on the small, skittery ornithopods of its late Cretaceous ecosystem, or perhaps even on newborn titanosaurs. Megaraptor may also have encountered, or even preyed on, one of the few true raptors of South America, the appropriately named Austroraptor (which only weighed about 500 pounds, or a quarter of Megaraptors size).
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
History of 1924 Olympic Games in Paris As an honor to the retiring IOC founder and president Pierre de Coubertin (and at his request) the 1924 Olympic Games were held in Paris. The 1924 Olympics, also known as the VIII Olympiad, were held from May 4 to July 27, 1924. These Olympics saw the introduction of the first Olympic Village and the first Closing Ceremony. Official Who Opened the Games: President Gaston DoumerguePerson Who Lit the Olympic Flame (This was not a tradition until theÃ 1928 Olympic Games)Number of Athletes:Ã 3,089 (2,954 men and 135 women)Number of Countries: 44Number of Events: 126 First Closing Ceremony Seeing the three flags raised at the end of the Olympics is one of the more memorable traditions of the Olympic Games and it started in 1924. The three flags are the official flag of the Olympic Games, the flag of the hosting country, and the flag of the country chosen to host the next Games. Paavo Nurmi Paavo Nurmi, the Flying Finn, dominated nearly all the running races at the 1924 Olympics. Often, called a superman, Nurmi won five gold medals at this Olympics, including in the 1,500-meter (set an Olympic record) and the 5,000-meter (set an Olympic record), which were only about an hour apart on that very hot July 10. Nurmi also won gold in the 10,000-meter cross-country run and as a member of the winning Finnish teams on the 3,000-meter relay and the 10,000-meter relay. Nurmi, known for keeping a very even pace (which he clocked on a stopwatch) and his seriousness, went on to win nine gold medals and three silver while competing in the 1920, 1924, and 1928 Olympics. Over his lifetime, he set 25 world records.Ã Remaining a popular figure in Finland, Nurmi was given the honor of lighting the Olympic flame at the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki and, from 1986 to 2002, appeared on the Finnish 10 markkaa banknote. Tarzan, the Swimmer Its pretty obvious that the public liked to see American swimmer Johnny Weissmuller with his shirt off. At the 1924 Olympics, Weissmuller won three gold medals: in the 100-meter freestyle, 400-meter freestyle, and the 4 x 200-meter relay. And a bronze medal as well as part of the water polo team.Ã Again at the 1928 Olympics, Weissmuller won two gold medals in swimming. However, what Johnny Weissmuller is most famous for is playing Tarzan in 12 different movies, made from 1932 to 1948. Chariots of Fire In 1981, the film Chariots of FireÃ was released. Having one of the most recognizable theme songs in the history of film and winning four Academy Awards,Ã Chariots of FireÃ told the story of two runners who raced during the 1924 Olympic Games. Scottish runner Eric Liddell was a focus of the film. Liddell, a devout Christian caused a stir when he refused to compete in any events held on a Sunday, which were some of his best events. That left only two events for him the 200-meter and 400-meter races, which he won bronze and gold in respectively. Interestingly, after the Olympics, he went back to North China to continue his familys missionary work, which ultimately led to his death in 1945 in a Japanese internment camp. Liddells Jewish teammate, Harold Abrahams was the other runner in theÃ Chariots of FireÃ film. Abrahams, who had focused more on the long jump in the 1920 Olympics, decided to put his energy into training for the 100-meter dash. After hiring a professional coach, Sam Mussabini, and training hard, Abrahams won gold in the 100-meter sprint. A year later, Abrahams suffered a leg injury, ending his athletic career. Tennis The 1924 Olympics were the last to see tennis as an event until it was brought back in 1988.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
International Tourism - Assignment Example However, Pakistan, even though bestowed with vast areas of unexploited and unexplored, breathtakingly beautiful landmarks, to date has been unable to exploit the travel and tourism industry to its maximum or for that matter, even the minimum level. According to an article available at Eturbonews. "The tourism industry in southern Asia generally showed growth in 2007, except for Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Political instability and a lack of security in these two countries led to a drop in arrivals from abroad: -7% for Pakistan, and -12% for Sri Lanka" The same news states further, "In general, the tourism industry in the subcontinent showed growth of 12%. In 2006."The same article further refers to Pakistan's tourism industry in the following words, " in addition to Sri Lanka, is represented by Pakistan, where tourism demand fell by 7% in 2007". Experts say this is related to the country's serious political instability and frequent terrorist attacks." There are two types of tourists' visiting Pakistan, The foreign Tourists and the domestic tourists. The domestic tourists can further be classified into up-country tourist (moving from the south of the country to the north) and down country tourists (tourists moving from North to South). Since tourism industry is a business mode... Tourist Categories: There are two types of tourists' visiting Pakistan, The foreign Tourists and the domestic tourists. The domestic tourists can further be classified into up-country tourist (moving from the south of the country to the north) and down country tourists (tourists moving from North to South). The major chunk of revenue comes form the foreign tourists who have resources available to splurge in the local markets and outing areas. Factors Impacting Foreign Tourists: Since tourism industry is a business model, the various theories that are used for external analysis apply to the tourism industry. The PESTLE Analysis identifies the external factors that impact the tourism industry of Pakistan. Political, Image of Pakistan: The image of Pakistan post 9/11 has been such that it is known as one of the most terrorist afflicted areas. It is believed that it lacks modern ways to commute and transportation networks fail. The volatile political situation makes if a very difficult choice to travel too especially when travel advisories are being issued against traveling to this country every now and then. Moreover, the frequent bombings and suicide bombings enhance this image further. The recent instances of terrorist kidnappings all paint a very deadly picture. Economic: before 2001, the economy of Pakistan was in doldrums with GDP growth rates as low as 4%. This reflected in a low level of investment in tourism and developments of infrastructure. Due to the lack of development of tourist attractions, Pakistan's tourism industry had stagnated. After 2001, there was a boom with growth reached as high as 7%, however, the wealth did not have a trickle down
Monday, February 3, 2020
Manufacturing Strategy - Case Study Example The second strategy this company used in its manufacturing is a balanced approach in investment. Most of manufacturing companies in Far East did close their factories and shifted their product production in other countries. The companies that shifted their manufacturing production from one-way flow utilized a balanced approach of investing and reinvestment in other nations. Hammond and Ramman (2006) posit that the company allocated more new production territories in Hong Kong. It also allowed subcontractors to start new plants in Guangdong in China. That was based on the fact that the cost of labor in China was extremely low as compared to the cost in the Far East plant. The third strategy used by Sport Obermeyer was maintaining a careful financial discipline. This company embraced a shareholder value added system in order to determine the difference between the operating profit of the organization and the associated cost of production. The company approximates cost of production before going through a critical analysis to establish whether it could effectively compete. The company got more information on production by allowing more groups to generate forecast demand of retailers on its products. The company then used that group efforts to produce the New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s production line. Besides, the company used several home markets and export strategies. While some manufacturing companies typically locate manufacturing plants in a given place to satisfy customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand, Sport Obermeyer Ltd embraced a double approach where it considered the demand in many markets even those found overseas. The management of the company implemented various product strategies. The first one was delivery of matching product collections to its esteemed retailers. That enabled the customers to concurrently view and buy those items simultaneously. Secondly, the management allowed
Saturday, January 25, 2020
First And Second New Deals Analysis This investigation assesses the successes and failures the New Deals. It will reveal how the First New Deal was more successful than the Second New Deal in relieving the Great Depression. In order to evaluate the successes and failures, the investigation evaluates the goals of the First New Deal and the Second New Deal. Furthermore it will show how it either harmed or saved the economy from the Great Depression. The two sources used for this investigation are History of the New Deal 1933-1938 written by Basil Rauch and The New Deal, What Was It? written by Morton Keller. These sources will be analyzed for their origins, purposes, values, and limitations. In contrary, this investigation does not assess the causes and effects of the Great Depression. Furthermore, it does not examine the initial reactions of the American people or outsiders toward the New Deal and the anger of the Great Depression. B. Summary of Evidence The New Deal created by Franklin Roosevelt tackled political, social, and economic issues. The program aimed for the conservation of human and natural resources, guided by the principle of the greatest good for the greatest numberÃ Ã . Some believed the New Deal was a program designed to prolong the capitalism. Meanwhile, other believe it was as the ambiguous label of Roosevelts safe multifarious program designed to make the United States safe for the Democratic Party.1 The New Deals involved series of programs aimed at ending the Great Depression during the 1930s. Thus Franklin Roosevelt was considered to saved America from the peril of the depression. The New Deal was divided into two part, the First New Deal (1933-1934) and the Second New Deal (1935-1938). The overall goals of both of the New Deals were to relieve, reform, and recover the United States from the Great Depression. The primary goal of the First New Deal was to help the United States from the Great Depression, while the Second New Deal was to reform the economy. The objective during the first period of the Great Depression was to increase higher prices for industry and agriculture, whereas the objective of the second period was to increase the purchasing power and provide sense of security.Ã Ã The First New Deal chiefly benefited the big business and large farmers. Whereas, the Second New Deal benefited the labors and smaller farmers. The First New Deal aimed in restoring the economy from the top down, while the Second New Deal from the bottom up. The First New Deals objectives were to tackle unemployment and farm relief. If the farmers are unable to prosper, the industries will also not prosper because industries rely on farmers to buy their products. The National Recovery Administration (NRA) supervise employing citizens and increasing production. The government sought to stimulate the economy by paying the farmers to produce less. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) addressed farmers issue of overproduction because prices were too low. This program protected farmers from prices of surplus crops, inflation of currency and cheap credit. In January 1936, the Supreme Court ruled the AAA unconstitutional, stating the government had no constitutional authority to limit farmers production. It was soon replaced by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, which permitted the government to pay farmers to reduce production to save the ecosystem from erosion and conserve soil. Secondly, the Civilian Conservation Corps, Roose velts favorite program, provided 250,000 unemployed young men with a job working in the national forest.Ã Ã When the NRA campaign to increase employment and production failed, they presented the Civil Works Administration provided employment to four million unemployed people to work on immediately on federal projects such as building roads and schools.Ã Ã Almost a billion dollars was able to go into consumers hands. The National Industrial Recovery Act assure profit and wages for laborers. These changes were temporary because CWA ended on April 1, 1934. In contrary, the goal of the Second New Deal was social justice. Reform was declared to be inseparable from recovery.Ã Ã The central objective was to provide security to the citizens who were unhappy with the stricken economy and overwhelm by the affects of the Great Depression. The federal government provided security and housing for the poor, elders, sick, and disabled. Old-aged was address by the Social Security Act of 1935. It was the first national old-aged program that provided a pension for retirees. Additionally, the federal government gave purchasing power to small business to increase profit. The government funds attempted to turn non-consumers into consumers again. The Works Progress Administration offered jobs to the unemployed. By providing jobs, workers are able to strengthen their familys well-being and boost consumer demands.ÃâÃ Although these programs were able to provide the population with a sense of security, it did not last because it was too weak and the some of programs addressed temporary issues. C. Evaluation of Sources The History of the New Deal 1933-1938, written by Basil Rauch in 1963, is an in depth analysis of the First and Second New Deal that investigates the successes and failures of the policies. It was written with the purpose of examining the evolution of the policies during Roosevelts economic from 1933 to 1938. The books value lies in the fact it discusses the launching of the First New Deal and the Second New Deal, the success and failures, and promises of the New Deal. Rauchs work is credible due to the authors position as a leading historian of the Roosevelts administration. However, the book is limited because hes admiration of Franklin Roosevelt. The New Deal, What Was It?, written by Morton Keller in 1963, is a collection of written sources from the period that provides evidence different perspective of the New Deals. This compendium proves to be a valuable source because it analyzes the various reasons why Roosevelt passed the First New Deal and Second New Deal. This collection of personal accounts is limited because each author has their own perspective and knowledge of the issues. Their political and ethnical stances are different from one another. The authors write those passages in order to persuade the audience of a certain situation. D. Analysis The New Deals were series of programs aimed at getting the United States out of the disastrous Great Depression. Proposed by FDR with the purpose of relieving, reforming, and recover the economy from the widespread poverty in the land of plenty, frustration and despair in the land of opportunityÃ Ã . The series of laws, government actions, and social development created continuous governmental responsibility for the welfare of the economy. The New Deals introduced broad social welfare programs and generated major shifts in national political allegiances. The presidential leadership of Franklin Roosevelt must be evaluated before analyzing the success and failure of the New Deals. Afterward the goals of the New Deal and the notions of the New Deal was evaluated. Some perceive him as a major figure in the twentieth century, a man who saved American from the peril of depression and threat of fascismÃ Ã . Consequently, FDRs leadership was the determining factor establishing the New Deal as a democratic alternative to Fascist or Communism. Historians such as Richard Hofstadter curtailed FDRs role as a successful leader of AmericanÃ Ã . The legislation of the New Deals was passed in a shorter time period than other important new legislation. The First New Deal attempted to restore Americas economic vitality and reform the stricken economic institutions. Rauch, author of History of the New Deal and leading historian of the New Deal, interprets the First New Deal as a desirable, democratic program of recovery, relief, and reform, made necessary by the accumulated evils of a business-dominated economyÃ Ã , suggesting the success of the New Deal should be measure by social relief and reform rather than economic recoveryÃ Ã . Others like Edgar Robinson believed development of the New Deal was not a response to national conditions and popular demand but it was to the work of administration officials influenced by alien and socialistic ideas who without popular mandate sought to recast American societyÃ Ã . The topic of the New Deal is debatable because it either prolonged the Great Depression or stabilized the economy. Many historians suggested Roosevelt introduced too many programs draining the US economy of the little money it had to create as many jobs as possible. Hence, the new programs contributed to the increase in the national taxes. Federal taxes as a percentage of gross national product jumped from 3.5 percent in 1933 to 6.9 in 1940, and taxes skyrocketed during World War IIÃ Ã . From 1934 to 1940, the average annual rate of unemployment was 17.2; at no point did unemployment go below 14 percentÃ Ã . But others suggested the programs were the best decision at the time. The First New Deal assisted in alleviating financial problems, provided jobs and improved standard of living with the creation of new roads, schools and railroads. Historians struggled to decide rather the New Deal was a good or a bad. Some believed FDR was both a radical and despot, while others believed he was a liberal. Leuchtenburg believed that most of the limitations of the New Deals were caused by restrictions imposed on Roosevelt by the ideological and political realities of his time. Ellis Hawley challenged liberal assumptions that the First New Deal was an enemy of private business interests. He argued the First New Deal was designed to enhance the position of private businesses. Ronald Radosh believed it was an effective agent for the consolidation of modern capitalism. According to Basil Rauch, the Second New Deal central objective was to provide security for the citizens of the USA. It establish security for unemployment, old-age insurance, benefits for destitute children, mothers, sick, and physically handicapped persons; stranded population rescued by better use of natural resources and intelligent distribution of means of livelihoodÃ Ã . Additionally, the Second New Deal did not concentrate on the recovery and rehabilitation of the economic structure but rather on social relief and reform. Raymond Mosley, an important adviser to FDR during the New Deals, reveals FDR increasing fondness for power and his pride as the source for the development of the New Deals. He conclude the New Deals had no consistency and unifying purposes; thus, the prime force directing the evolution of the New Deal was the growing demagoguery and desire for power of FDR and his advisersÃ Ã . On the contrary, the editors the New Republic suggest the New Deals were too friendly with big business and it stressed the administrations increasingly sensitive response to the social misfortunes of Americans. Lastly, no event in the last four century of America beside the Civil War had stirred much controversy among historians as the New Deal. Historians still question what it actually was and mean. Some agree that Roosevelts New Deal was the only possibility of alleviating the Great Depression, but many still ultimately blame him for prolonging the Great Depression. E. Conclusion The purpose of the First and Second New Deals were to help alleviate the depression. The economy was still in shambles due o failure of construction to revive and high production prices. By launching the New Deals, FDR was able to demonstrates the power he and his cabinet obtain over the United States. The First New Deal assisted in alleviating the financial crisis by providing jobs, improved Americas standard of living with the development of new roads, schools, and railroads. Unfortunately, Roosevelt drained the USs economy of the little money it had in order to create as many jobs as possible. Franklin Roosevelt was the only reform president who attempted to restore the stricken economy. Hence the success of the First New Deal was attributed to the coincidence of good politics and the determinations of social conscience. The First New Deal was able to accomplish more goals than the Second New Deal because it provided jobs to the unemployed. The First New Deal was an immediate solu tion; it called fro a quick fix. The Second New Deal only provided a sense of security among the disgruntle citizens. Although the Second New Deal was less immediate, it was far reaching because some of the programs such as the Social Security Act is still being used today.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Introduction We often hear about words being added to dictionaries as they become part of everyday vernacular, but have you ever heard about any words that get removed? Some people argue that if a word has existed at some point in time then it merits a place in the dictionary. After all, who knows when someone may come across it in an old text and need to look up the definition? Others say that dictionaries should reflect the language that we use here and now, and so those words which have become obsolete in everyday language should no longer have a place in the dictionary. Language and culture are constantly changing, so how do we keep up with these changes without losing our past? The article is intended to go back in time and to disclose archaisms in the English language. Different groups of archaisms, the difference between archaisms and historisms, periods of their development, stylistic features, semantic groups and other problems got their reflection in the article. Different viewpoints of scientists, the aim of using archaisms in belles-lettres and their classification are presented and illustrated by the examples in Russian and English. 1. How do words in everyday language become obsolete? The vocabulary of a language never remains stable. There are constant changes in the semantic structure of any language. Words appear, undergo a number of phonetic and semantic changes and finally pass completely out of use. The disappearance of various things, phenomena, etc. causes either comÃ plete disappearance of their names or turns them into Ã «representativesÃ » of a previous epoch. Many words become obsolete in ordinary language, but remain in poetry, in books conforming to a definite style, in oratory, etc. A great many archaÃ isms survive in English dialects. Thus the fate of obsolete words may be different. We distinguish two groups of obsolete words: archaisms proper and historical terms (historisms). Before turning to them it is of primary importance to distinguish the terms Ã¢â¬ archaicÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬ obsoleteÃ¢â¬ . The terms Ã¢â¬Å"archaicÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"obsoleteÃ¢â¬ are used more or less indiscriminately by some authors. The meaning of these temporal labels, however, can be somewhat different among dictionaries. The label archaic isÃ used for words that were once common but are now rare. Archaic implies having the character or characteristics of a much earlier time. Obsolete indicates that a term is no longer in active use, except, for example, in literary quotation. Obsolete may apply to a word regarded as no longer acceptable or useful even though it is still in existence. In the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin [4th ed.], 2004) the archaic label is described this way: Ã¢â¬Å"This label is applied to words and senses that were once common but are now rare, though they may be familiar because of their occurrence in certain contexts, such as the literature of an earlier time. Specifically, this label is attached to entry words and senses for which there is only sporadic evidence in print after 1755.Ã¢â¬ The AHD describes the obsolete label thus: Ã¢â¬Å"The label obsolete is used with entry words and senses no longer in active use, except, for example, in literary quotations. Specifically, this label is attached to entry words and senses for which there is little or no printed evidence since 1755.Ã¢â¬ In Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 2003), the Explanatory Notes say, Ã¢â¬Å"The temporal label obs for obsolete means that there is no evidence of use since 1755. The label obs is a comment on the word being defined. When a thing, as distinguished from the word used to designate it, is obsolete, appropriate orientation is usually given in the definition. The temporal label archaic means that a word or sense once in common use is found today only sporadically or in special contexts.Ã¢â¬ Random House Dictionary defines an obsolete word as one Ã¢â¬Å"no longer in use, esp. out of use for at least a centuryÃ¢â¬ , whereas an archaism is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"current in an earlier time but rare in present usageÃ¢â¬ . However, it should be pointed out that the borderline between Ã¢â¬Å"obsoleteÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"archaicÃ¢â¬ is vague and uncertain, and in many cases it is difficult to decide to which of the groups this or that word belongs. 2. Archaisms proper: etymology, main features and usage. In language, an archaism (from the Ancient Greek: Ã¡ ¼â¬Ã Ãâ¡Ã ±ÃÅ Ã ºÃÅ'Ãâ, archaÃ ¯kÃ ³s, Ã¢â¬Ëold-fashioned, antiquatedÃ¢â¬â¢, ultimately Ã¡ ¼â¬Ã Ãâ¡Ã ±Ã¡ ¿â"Ã ¿Ãâ, archaÃ ®os, Ã¢â¬Ëfrom the beginning, ancientÃ¢â¬â¢) is the use of a form of speech or writing that is noÃ longer current. This can either be done deliberately (to achieve a specific effect) or as part of a specific jargon (for example in law) or formula (for example in religious contexts). Many nursery rhymes contain archaisms. Archaic elements that occur only in certain fixed expressions (for example Ã¢â¬Ëbe that as it mayÃ¢â¬â¢) are not considered to be archaisms. Archaisms proper are obsolete words denoting real things and phenomÃ ena, but the words themselves are no longer found in ordinary English: they were substituted by others, obsolete words becoming their stylistic synonyms. These words are moribund, already partly or fully out of circulation, rejected by the living l anguage. There are three stages in the aging processes of words: they become rarely used; they are in the stage of gradually passing out from use; these are the morphological forms belonging to the earlier stage of the development of the language [thee, thou], corresponding verbal endings [thou makest], many French borrowings [palfreu] they have already gone completely out of use and are still recognized by the English-speaking people. [me thinks = it seems to me, nay = no]. archaic words proper is no longer recognizable in modern English; such words were in use during the Old English period, are earlier dropped out of the language or have changed in the appearance so much that they have become unrecognizable [losso =lazy fellow]. While some words become obsolete from everyday language, others still exist but their meaning has changed over time. Words like fun fur have remained in use as their meanings have been adapted to current circumstances. Fun fur used to refer to cheap animal fur that had been dyed in several colors until the 1960s. Today it refers to synthetic fur. 3. Types of archaisms: lexical and grammatical archaisms and their peculiarities Generally we distinguish lexical and grammatical archaisms.Ã Grammatical archaÃ isms are forms of words which went out of use with the development of the grammar system of the English language: -th Ã¢â¬â suffix of the 3rd person sing., Present Indef. Tense, e.g. hath, doth, speaketh; -st Ã¢â¬â 2nd person Ã¢â¬â dost, hast, speakest; art Ã¢â¬â 2nd person of the verb Ã «to beÃ » pl.; thou, thee, thy, thine Ã¢â¬â pronouns; ye Ã¢â¬â plural, 2nd person. Lexical archaisms. Poetry is especially rich in archaisms. Words that are too well known and too often used do not call up such vivid images as words less familiar. This is one of the reasons which impel poets to use archaic words. They are Ã «newÃ » just on account of their being old, and yet they are not utterly unknown to be unintelligible. The following are some of the most common lexical archaisms used in poetry: billow Ã¢â¬â Ã ²Ã ¾Ã ¹Ã ½Ã °; save Ã¢â¬â Ã ºÃ'â¬Ã ¾Ã ¼Ã µ; plain Ã¢â¬â Ã ¶Ã °Ã »Ã ¾Ã ²Ã °Ã'âÃ'Å'Ã' Ã' ; behold Ã¢â¬â Ã ²Ã ¸Ã ´Ã µÃ'âÃ'Å'; yon (yonder) Ã¢â¬â Ã'âÃ ¾Ã'â; eke Ã¢â¬â Ã'âÃ ¾Ã ¶Ã µ; brow Ã¢â¬â Ã'â¡Ã µÃ »Ã ¾; foe Ã¢â¬â Ã ²Ã'â¬Ã °Ã ³; ere Ã¢â¬â Ã ´Ã ¾; steed Ã¢â¬â Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ½Ã'Å'; morn Ã¢â¬â Ã'Æ'Ã'âÃ'â¬Ã ¾; belike Ã¢â¬â Ã ²Ã µÃ'â¬Ã ¾Ã' Ã'âÃ ½Ã ¾; damsel Ã¢â¬â Ã ´Ã µÃ ²Ã'Æ'Ã'ËÃ ºÃ °; woe Ã¢â¬â rope; oft, oft-times Ã¢â¬â Ã'â¡Ã °Ã' Ã'âÃ ¾; mere Ã¢â ¬â Ã ¾Ã ·Ã µÃ'â¬Ã ¾, Ã ¿Ã'â¬Ã'Æ'Ã ´; hearken Ã¢â¬â Ã' Ã »Ã'Æ'Ã'ËÃ °Ã'âÃ'Å'; albeit Ã¢â¬â Ã'â¦Ã ¾Ã'âÃ' , etc. Their last refuge is in historical novels (whose authors used them to create a particular period atmosphere) and, of course, in poetry which is rather conservative in its choice of words. So their main function is to sustain a special evaluated atmosphere of poetry. They form an insignificant layer of special literary vocabulary. On the whole they are detached from the common literary vocabulary. Thus, the use of archaic words is a stylistic device. In historical novels they create an atmosphere of the past. In the depiction of events of the present they assume the function of a stylistic device proper. The stylistic functions of the archaic words are based on the temporary perception of the event. Even when used in a terminological aspect they create a special atmosphere in the utterance. They form a rather insignificant layer of the special literary vocabulary. 1. They are used by authors to produce an elevated (Ã ²Ã ¾Ã ·Ã ²Ã'â¹Ã'Ë) effect. 2. They have a tendency to detach themselves from the common literary word-stock and assume the quality of terms denoting certain notions and calling forth poetic diction. Closely associated with archaisms are poetical words. The use of poetic words doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t as a rule create the atmosphere of poetry, but it substitutes its expressiveness. The common way of creating such words is compoundingÃ [young-eyed, rosy-fingered]. Poetic words and expressions are understandable to a limited number of readers. In modern poetry words are often used in strange combinations [the sound of shame]. Poetic words in an ordinary environment may also have a satirical function. They can also be found in other styles, e.g. in journalistic style: proceed (go), the welkin (the sky), the vale (the valley), the devouring element (the fire). Archaic words Ã¢â¬â yclept (to call, name), quoth (to speak), eftsoons (again soon after) are good examples. They evoke emotive meaning. They color the utterance with the certain air of loftiness (elevation). But generally fail to produce a general feeling of delight. They are taken hacked, too outdate. These words are often used by modern ballet mangers (Ã' Ã ¾Ã'â¡Ã ¸Ã ½Ã ¸Ã'âÃ µÃ »Ã ¸ Ã ±Ã °Ã »Ã »Ã °Ã ´). Some poetical words and set expressions make the utterance understandable only to a limited number of readers. This poetical language is often called poetical jargon. Ã¢â¬Å"Alas! They had been friends in youth; But whispering tongues can poison truth And constancy lives in realms above; And life is thorny; and youth is vain; And to be wroth with one we love, Doth work like madness in the brainÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Coleridge) Thou and thy, aye (Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ ) and nay (Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ ) are certainly archaic and long since rejected by common usage, yet poets use them even today. (We also find the same four words and many other archaisms among dialectisms, which is quite natural, as dialects are also conservative and retain archaic words and structures). Numerous archaisms can be found in Shakespeare, but it should be taken into consideration that what appear to us today as archaisms in the works of Shakespeare, are in fact examples of everyday language of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time. There are several such archaisms in ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech from Twelfth Night: Ã¢â¬Å"There is a fair behavior in thee, Captain, And though that nature with a beauteous wall Doth oft close in pollution, yet of thee I will believe thou hast a mind that suits With this thy fair and outward character. I prithee Ã¢â¬â and IÃ¢â¬â¢ll pay thee bounteously Ã¢â¬â Conceal me what I am, and be my aid For such disguise as haply shall become The form of my intentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Act 1, Sc. 2) 32 Further examples of archaisms are: morn (for morning), eve (for evening), moon (for month), damsel (for girl), errant (for wandering, e.g. errant knights), etc. Sometimes, an archaic word may undergo a sudden revival. So, the formerly archaic kin (for relatives; oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family) is now current in American usage. Archaisms are also most frequently encountered in poetry, law, science, technology, geography and ritual writing and speech. Their deliberate use can be subdivided into literary archaisms, which seeks to evoke the style of older speech and writing; and lexical archaisms, the use of words no longer in common use. Archaisms are kept alive by these ritual and literary uses and by the study of older literature. Should they remain recognized, they can be revived, as the word anent was in this past century. Because they are things of continual discovery and re-invention, scie nce and technology have historically generated forms of speech and writing which have dated and fallen into disuse relatively quickly. However the emotional associations of certain words (for example: Ã¢â¬ËWirelessÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than Ã¢â¬ËRadioÃ¢â¬â¢ for a generation of British citizens who lived through the second world war) have kept them alive even though the older word is clearly an archaism. A similar desire to evoke a former age means that archaic place names are frequently used in circumstances where doing so conveys a political or emotional subtext, or when the official new name is not recognized by all (for example: Ã¢â¬ËPersiaÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than Ã¢â¬ËIranÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËBombayÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than Ã¢â¬ËMumbaiÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËMadrasÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than Ã¢â¬ËChennaiÃ¢â¬â¢). So, a restaurant seeking to conjure up historic associations might prefer to call itself Old Bombay or refer to Persian cuisine in preference to using the newer place name. A notable contemporary example is the name of the airline Cathay Pacific, which uses the archaic Cathay (Ã¢â¬Å"ChinaÃ¢â¬ ). Archaisms are frequently misunderstood, leading to changes in usage. One example is found in the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"the odd man outÃ¢â¬ , which originally came from the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"to find the odd man outÃ¢â¬ , where the verb Ã¢â¬Å"to find outÃ¢â¬ has been split by its object Ã¢â¬Å"the odd manÃ¢â¬ , meaning the item which does not fit. The compound adverbs and prepositions found in the writing of lawyers (e.g. heretofore, hereunto, thereof) are examples of archaisms as a form of jargon. Some phraseologies, especially in religious contexts, retain archaic elements that are not used in ordinary speech in any other context: Ã¢â¬Å"With this ring I thee wed.Ã¢â¬ Archaisms are also used in the dialogue of historical novels in order to evoke the flavour of the period. Some may count as inherently funny words and are used for humorous effect. 4. Historims: main features and classification Historisms are names of things and phenomena which passed out of use with the development of social, economical, cultural life of society but which retain historical importance. Unlike archaisms, historical terms have no synoÃ nyms in Modern English: they are only names of things and notions which refer to the past of the English people. The sphere of these words is restricted with scientific literature or with books and novels dealing with certain historical periods. There are lots of hisÃ torisms in the historical novels of W.Scott and other English authors, e.g.: Historisms are very numerous as names for social relations, institutions and objects of material culture of the past. The names of ancient transport means, ancient clothes, weapons, musical instruments can offer many examples. Before the appearance of motor-cars many different types of horse-drawn carriages were in use. The names of some of them are: brougham, berlin, calash, diligence, fly, gig, hansom, landeau, phae ton, etc. It is interesting to mention specially the romantically metaphoric prairie schooner Ã¢â¬Ëa canvas-covered wagon used by pioneers crossing the North American prairiesÃ¢â¬â¢. There are still many sailing ships in use, and schooner in the meaning of Ã¢â¬Ëa sea-going vesselÃ¢â¬â¢ is not an historism, but a prairie schooner is. Many types of sailing craft belong to the past as caravels or galleons, so their names are historisms too. The history of costume forms an interesting topic by itself. It is reflected in the history of corresponding terms. The corresponding glossaries may be veryÃ long. Only very few examples can be mentioned here. In W. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays, for instance, doublets are often mentioned. A doublet is a close-fitting jacket with or without sleeves worn by men in the 15th-17th centuries. It is interesting to note that descriptions of ancient garments given in dictionaries often include their social functions in this or that period. Thus, a tabard of the 15th century was a short surcoat open at the sides and with short sleeves, worn by a knight over his armour and emblazoned on the front, back and sides with his armorial bearin gs. Not all historisms refer to such distant periods. Thus, bloomers Ã¢â¬â an outfit designed for women in mid-nineteenth century. It consisted of Turkish-style trousers gathered at the ankles and worn by women as Ã¢â¬Å"a rational dressÃ¢â¬ . It was introduced by Mrs Bloomer, editor and social reformer, as a contribution to woman rights movement. Somewhat later bloomers were worn by girls and women for games and cycling, but then they became shorter and reached only to the knee. A great many historisms denoting various types of weapons occur in historical novels, e. g. a battering ram Ã¢â¬Ëan ancient machine for breaking wallsÃ¢â¬â¢; a blunderbuss Ã¢â¬Ëan old type of gun with a wide muzzleÃ¢â¬â¢; breastplate Ã¢â¬Ëa piece of metal armour worn by knights over the chest to protect it in battleÃ¢â¬â¢; a crossbow Ã¢â¬Ëa medieval weapon consisting of a bow fixed across a wooden stockÃ¢â¬â¢. Many words belonging to this semantic field remain in the vocabulary in some figurative meaning, e. g. arrow, shield, sword, vizor, etc. Thus we can distinguish the following types of historisms: 1. words of social position: yeomen Ã¢â¬â Ã ¹Ã ¾Ã ¼Ã µÃ ½, knight Ã¢â¬â Ã'â¬Ã'â¹Ã'â Ã °Ã'â¬Ã'Å', scribe Ã¢â¬â Ã ¿Ã ¸Ã' Ã µÃ'â ; 2. names of arms and words connected with war: battle ax Ã¢â¬â Ã ±Ã ¾Ã µÃ ²Ã ¾Ã ¹ Ã'âÃ ¾Ã Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã'â¬Ã ¸Ã º, musket Ã¢â¬â Ã ¼Ã'Æ'Ã'ËÃ ºÃ µÃ'â, visor Ã¢â¬â Ã ·Ã °Ã ±Ã'â¬Ã °Ã »Ã ¾, warrior Ã¢â¬â Ã ²Ã ¾Ã ¸Ã ½, sword Ã¢â¬â Ã ¼Ã µÃ'â¡, gauntlet Ã¢â¬â Ã'â¬Ã'â¹Ã'â Ã °Ã'â¬Ã' Ã ºÃ °Ã' Ã ¿Ã µÃ'â¬Ã'â¡Ã °Ã'âÃ ºÃ ° = Ã »Ã °Ã'âÃ ½Ã °Ã' Ã'â¬Ã'Æ'Ã ºÃ °Ã ²Ã ¸Ã'â Ã °, archer Ã¢â¬â Ã' Ã'âÃ'â¬Ã µÃ »Ã ¾Ã º Ã ¸Ã · Ã »Ã'Æ'Ã ºÃ °, spear Ã¢â¬â Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¿Ã'Å'Ã µ; 3. types of vessels: galley Ã¢â¬â Ã ³Ã °Ã »Ã µÃ'â¬Ã °, frigate Ã¢â¬â Ã'âÃ'â¬Ã µÃ ³Ã °Ã'â, caravel Ã¢â¬â Ã ºÃ °Ã'â¬Ã °Ã ²Ã µÃ »Ã »Ã °; 4. types of carts which went out of use: brougham Ã¢â¬â Ã ¾Ã ´Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ¼Ã µÃ' Ã'âÃ ½Ã °Ã' Ã ºÃ °Ã'â¬Ã µÃ'âÃ °, chaise Ã¢â¬â Ã'âÃ °Ã' Ã'âÃ ¾Ã ½, Ã »Ã µÃ ³Ã ºÃ °Ã' Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ¾Ã ·Ã ºÃ ° Ã' Ã ¾Ã'âÃ ºÃ'â¬Ã'â¹Ã'âÃ'â¹Ã ¼ Ã ²Ã µÃ'â¬Ã'â¦Ã ¾Ã ¼, hansom Ã¢â¬â Ã ´Ã ²Ã'Æ'Ã'â¦Ã ¼Ã µÃ' Ã'âÃ ½Ã'â¹Ã ¹ Ã' Ã ºÃ ¸Ã ¿Ã °Ã ¶, Ã ³Ã ´Ã µ Ã' Ã ¸Ã ´Ã µÃ ½Ã ¸Ã µ Ã ºÃ'Æ'Ã'â¡Ã µÃ'â¬Ã ° Ã'â¬Ã °Ã' Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã »Ã ¾Ã ¶Ã µÃ ½Ã ¾ Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã ·Ã °Ã ´Ã ¸ Ã ¸ Ã ½Ã µÃ' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã'Å'Ã Ã ºÃ ¾ Ã ²Ã'â¹Ã'ËÃ µ Ã ¼Ã µÃ' Ã'â Ã ´Ã »Ã' Ã' Ã µÃ ´Ã ¾Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ², coach Ã¢â¬â Ã ºÃ °Ã'â¬Ã µÃ'âÃ ° (Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã'â¡Ã'âÃ ¾Ã ²Ã °Ã' ); 5. names of old musical instruments: lute Ã¢â¬â Ã »Ã'Å½Ã'âÃ ½Ã' , lyre Ã¢â¬â Ã »Ã ¸Ã'â¬Ã °. So the number ofÃ historisms which reflect the social life and culture of the past is very great. Conclusion Though many of the words discussed above are rather old-fashioned, outdate and are rarely used in modern society, they still have a unique place in the depositary of English word-stock. Thus they can be found in bigger dictionaries as they might be relevant to specific fields. Words and their meanings are always bound to specific contexts and times in which their meaning makes sense. Anyone learning a language needs to be aware of how words are used today and historically in order to correctly interpret and understand their meaning. So one should always keep up with the constant changes in language to make sure that their skills are the most appropriate for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern world. Methodical literature 1. Ã Ã'âÃ'â¬Ã'Æ'Ã'ËÃ ¸Ã ½Ã ° Ãâ. Ãâ., Ã Ã'âÃ °Ã ½Ã °Ã' Ã'Å'Ã µÃ ²Ã ° ÃÅ¾. Ãâ., ÃÅ"Ã ¾Ã'â¬Ã ¾Ã ·Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ° Ã . Ã . ÃâºÃ µÃ ºÃ' Ã ¸Ã ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¸Ã' Ã °Ã ½Ã ³Ã »Ã ¸Ã ¹Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ·Ã'â¹Ã ºÃ °: Ã £Ã'â¡Ã µÃ ±. Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã' Ã ¾Ã ±Ã ¸Ã µ Ã ´Ã »Ã' Ã' Ã'âÃ'Æ'Ã ´Ã µÃ ½Ã'âÃ ¾Ã ². ÃâÃ'â¬Ã ¾Ã'âÃ °, 1999 2. ÃâÃ ¸Ã ½Ã ·Ã ±Ã'Æ'Ã'â¬Ã ³, Ã ¡. Ã ¡. Ã ¥Ã ¸Ã ´Ã µÃ ºÃ µÃ »Ã'Å', Ãâ. Ã ®. ÃÅ¡Ã ½Ã' Ã ·Ã µÃ ²Ã ° Ã ¸ Ã . Ã . Ã ¡Ã °Ã ½Ã ºÃ ¸Ã ½. ÃâºÃ µÃ ºÃ' Ã ¸Ã ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¸Ã' Ã °Ã ½Ã ³Ã »Ã ¸Ã ¹Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ·Ã'â¹Ã ºÃ °: Ã £Ã'â¡Ã µÃ ±Ã ½Ã ¸Ã º Ã ´Ã »Ã' Ã ¸Ã ½-Ã'âÃ ¾Ã ² Ã ¸ Ã'âÃ °Ã º. Ã ¸Ã ½Ã ¾Ã' Ã'âÃ'â¬. Ã' Ã ·. ÃâÃ'â¹Ã' Ã'Ë. Ã'ËÃ ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã °, 1979. 3. Ã Ã'â¬Ã ½Ã ¾Ã »Ã'Å'Ã ´ ÃË. Ãâ. ÃâºÃ µÃ ºÃ' Ã ¸Ã ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¸Ã' Ã' Ã ¾Ã ²Ã'â¬Ã µÃ ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã °Ã ½Ã ³Ã »Ã ¸Ã ¹Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ·Ã'â¹Ã ºÃ °: Ã £Ã'â¡Ã µÃ ±. Ã ´Ã »Ã' Ã ¸Ã ½-Ã'âÃ ¾Ã ² Ã ¸ Ã'âÃ °Ã º. Ã ¸Ã ½Ã ¾Ã' Ã'âÃ'â¬. Ã' Ã ·. ÃÅ".: ÃâÃ'â¹Ã' Ã'Ë. Ã'ËÃ º., 1986. Ã¢â¬â 295 Ã' ., Ã ¸Ã ». Ã¢â¬â Ã Ã ° Ã °Ã ½Ã ³Ã ». Ã' Ã ·. Internet sources http://ru.scribd.com/doc/33264944/English-Lexicology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaism http://dictionary.reference.com/help/faq/language/d25.html http://window.edu.ru/library/pdf2txt/731/67731/41095/page6 http://matadornetwork.com/abroad/20-obsolete-english-words-that-should-make-a-comeback/2/
Thursday, January 9, 2020
International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue4- 2012 Impact of Employee Motivation on Performance (Productivity) In Private Organization 1Nupur Chaudhary, 2Dr. Bharti Sharma, 1Research Scholar, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, 2Associate Professor, St. Wilfred. College, Jaipur, Abstract - Doing Business all over the world is very challenging. Corporate performance and revenue growth are challenge by Internal and external operating environment factors. To survive in profitable way in the highly challenging and competitive global market economy, all the factor of Employee Retention Production - machine, materials men, Ã¢â¬â should be managed in a impressive way Among the factors of production the humanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Note: motivation is an emotional fact which means needs and wants of the have to be tackled by framing an incentive plan. b. Employee satisfaction: Whether employees are happy and satisfied and pleasing their desires needs at work. Many measures claim that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee goal. ISSN: 2249-0183 http://www.internationaljournalssrg.org Page 29 International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue4- 2012 Achievement and positive employee confidence in the workplace. Employee satisfaction, while normally a positive in your organization, can also be a disappointment if ordinary employees continue because they are satisfied with your work environment. c. Employee Performance: The activity of performance ; of doing something fruitfully; by knowledge as famous from simply possessing it; A performance Comprises an event in which normally one group of people the performer or Performers act in a particular way for another group of people d. Productivity: Productivity is that which people can produce with the smallest amount effort Productivity is a ratio to calculate how well an organization or individual, industry, country converts input belongings, labor, materials, machines etc. into goods and services e. Working Environment: Stresses, influences, and competitive, situation, civilizing,Show MoreRelatedImpact of Motivation on Employee Job Performance11448 Words Ã |Ã 46 Pagesabout his or her underlying motivation. Motivation is a decision-making process, through which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behavior appropriate to them. Motivation is defined as an urge in an individual to perform goal directed behavior. Therefore, motivation cannot be inflicted from outside but it is an intrinsic desire in a man to achieve the target goal through performance or activity. 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